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前言 ............................................................................ xi
1. 教程 ......................................................................... 1
1.1. 第一部分 - 第一个 Hibernate 应用程序 ................................. 1
1.1.1. 设置 ............................................................ 1
1.1.2. 第一个 class ................................................... 3
1.1.3. 映射文件 ........................................................ 4
1.1.4. Hibernate 配置 .................................................. 7
1.1.5. 用 Maven 构建 .................................................. 9
1.1.6. 启动和辅助类 .................................................... 9
1.1.7. 加载并存储对象 ................................................. 10
1.2. 第二部分 - 关联映射 ................................................. 13
1.2.1. 映射 Person 类 ................................................ 13
1.2.2. 单向 Set-based 的关联 ......................................... 14
1.2.3. 使关联工作 ..................................................... 15
1.2.4. 值类型的集合 ................................................... 17
1.2.5. 双向关联 ....................................................... 18
1.2.6. 使双向连起来 ................................................... 19
1.3. 第三部分 - EventManager web 应用程序 ................................. 20
1.3.1. 编写基本的 servlet ............................................. 20
1.3.2. 处理与渲染 ..................................................... 21
1.3.3. 部署与测试 ..................................................... 23
1.4. 总结 ................................................................. 24
2. 体系结构(Architecture) ..................................................... 25
2.1. 概况(Overview) ...................................................... 25
2.1.1. Minimal architecture ........................................... 25
2.1.2. Comprehensive architecture ..................................... 26
2.1.3. Basic APIs .................................................... 27
2.2. JMX 整合 ............................................................. 28
2.3. 上下文相关的会话(Contextual Session) ................................ 28
3. 配置 ........................................................................ 31
3.1. 可编程的配置方式 ...................................................... 31
3.2. 获得 SessionFactory .................................................. 32
3.3. JDBC 连接 ............................................................ 32
3.4. 可选的配置属性 ........................................................ 34
3.4.1. SQL 方言 ...................................................... 41
3.4.2. 外连接抓取(Outer Join Fetching) .............................. 42
3.4.3. 二进制流(Binary Streams) ..................................... 42
3.4.4. 二级缓存与查询缓存 ............................................. 42
3.4.5. 查询语言中的替换 ............................................... 42
3.4.6. Hibernate 的统计(statistics)机制 ............................. 43
3.5. 日志 ................................................................. 43
3.6. 实现 NamingStrategy .................................................. 43
3.7. Implementing a PersisterClassProvider ................................. 44
3.8. XML 配置文件 ......................................................... 44
HIBERNATE - Relational Persis...
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3.9. Java EE Application Server integration ............................... 46
3.9.1. 事务策略配置 ................................................... 46
3.9.2. JNDI 绑定的 SessionFactory ..................................... 47
3.9.3. 在 JTA 环境下使用 Current Session context(当前 session 上下文)
管理 .................................................................. 48
3.9.4. JMX 部署 ...................................................... 48
4. 持久化类(Persistent Classes) .............................................. 51
4.1. 一个简单的 POJO 例子 ................................................. 51
4.1.1. 实现一个默认的(即无参数的)构造方法(constructor) ............. 52
4.1.2. Provide an identifier property ................................. 53
4.1.3. Prefer non-final classes (semi-optional) ....................... 53
4.1.4. 为持久化字段声明访问器(accessors)和是否可变的标志(mutators)
(可选) .............................................................. 54
4.2. 实现继承(Inheritance) ............................................... 54
4.3. 实现 equals() 和 hashCode() 方法: ................................... 55
4.4. 动态模型(Dynamic models) ............................................ 56
4.5. 元组片断映射(Tuplizers) ............................................. 58
4.6. EntityNameResolvers ................................................... 59
5. 对象/关系数据库映射基础(Basic O/R Mapping) ................................. 63
5.1. 映射定义(Mapping declaration) ....................................... 63
5.1.1. Entity ......................................................... 66
5.1.2. Identifiers .................................................... 71
5.1.3. Optimistic locking properties (optional) ....................... 89
5.1.4. Property ....................................................... 92
5.1.5. Embedded objects (aka components) ............................. 101
5.1.6. Inheritance strategy .......................................... 104
5.1.7. Mapping one to one and one to many associations ............... 115
5.1.8. 自然 ID(natural-id) ......................................... 123
5.1.9. Any ........................................................... 124
5.1.10. 属性(Properties) ........................................... 126
5.1.11. Some hbm.xml specificities ................................... 128
5.2. Hibernate 的类型 .................................................... 131
5.2.1. 实体(Entities)和值(values) ................................ 131
5.2.2. 基本值类型 .................................................... 132
5.2.3. 自定义值类型 .................................................. 134
5.3. 多次映射同一个类 ..................................................... 135
5.4. SQL 中引号包围的标识符 ............................................... 135
5.5. 数据库生成属性(Generated Properties) ............................... 136
5.6. Column transformers: read and write expressions ...................... 136
5.7. 辅助数据库对象(Auxiliary Database Objects) ......................... 137
6. Types ...................................................................... 139
6.1. Value types ......................................................... 139
6.1.1. Basic value types ............................................ 139
6.1.2. Composite types ............................................... 146
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6.1.3. Collection types .............................................. 146
6.2. Entity types ........................................................ 146
6.3. Significance of type categories ..................................... 147
6.4. Custom types ........................................................ 147
6.4.1. Custom types using org.hibernate.type.Type .................... 147
6.4.2. Custom types using org.hibernate.usertype.UserType ............ 149
6.4.3. Custom types using org.hibernate.usertype.CompositeUserType .... 150
6.5. Type registry ....................................................... 151
7. 集合映射(Collection mappings) ............................................ 153
7.1. 持久化集合类(Persistent collections) ............................... 153
7.2. How to map collections .............................................. 154
7.2.1. 集合外键(Collection foreign keys) ........................... 157
7.2.2. 索引集合类(Indexed collections) ............................. 158
7.2.3. Collections of basic types and embeddable objects ............. 164
7.3. 高级集合映射(Advanced collection mappings) ......................... 166
7.3.1. 有序集合(Sorted collections) ................................ 166
7.3.2. 双向关联(Bidirectional associations) ........................ 167
7.3.3. 双向关联,涉及有序集合类 ...................................... 172
7.3.4. 三重关联(Ternary associations) .............................. 173
7.3.5. Using an <idbag> ............................................. 174
7.4. 集合例子(Collection example) ....................................... 174
8. 关联关系映射 ............................................................... 181
8.1. 介绍 ................................................................ 181
8.2. 单向关联(Unidirectional associations) .............................. 181
8.2.1. 多对一(many-to-one) ......................................... 181
8.2.2. 一对一(One-to-one) .......................................... 181
8.2.3. 一对多(one-to-many) ......................................... 182
8.3. 使用连接表的单向关联(Unidirectional associations with join tables) .. 183
8.3.1. 一对多(one-to-many) ......................................... 183
8.3.2. 多对一(many-to-one) ......................................... 184
8.3.3. 一对一(One-to-one) .......................................... 184
8.3.4. 多对多(many-to-many) ........................................ 185
8.4. 双向关联(Bidirectional associations) ............................... 186
8.4.1. 一对多(one to many)/多对一(many to one) .................... 186
8.4.2. 一对一(One-to-one) .......................................... 187
8.5. 使用连接表的双向关联(Bidirectional associations with join tables) ... 188
8.5.1. 一对多(one to many)/多对一(many to one) .................... 188
8.5.2. 一对一(one to one) ......................................... 189
8.5.3. 多对多(many-to-many) ........................................ 190
8.6. 更复杂的关联映射 ..................................................... 190
9. 组件(Component)映射 ....................................................... 193
9.1. 依赖对象(Dependent objects) ........................................ 193
9.2. 在集合中出现的依赖对象(Collections of dependent objects) ........... 195
9.3. 组件作为 Map 的索引(Components as Map indices ) .................... 196
HIBERNATE - Relational Persis...
vi
9.4. 组件作为联合标识符(Components as composite identifiers) ............ 196
9.5. 动态组件(Dynamic components) ....................................... 198
10. 继承映射(Inheritance Mapping) ........................................... 201
10.1. 三种策略 ............................................................ 201
10.1.1. 每个类分层结构一张表(Table per class hierarchy) ............ 201
10.1.2. 每个子类一张表(Table per subclass) ......................... 202
10.1.3. 每个子类一张表(Table per subclass),使用辨别标志
(Discriminator) .................................................... 202
10.1.4. 混合使用“每个类分层结构一张表”和“每个子类一张表” .......... 203
10.1.5. 每个具体类一张表(Table per concrete class) ................. 204
10.1.6. 每个具体类一张表,使用隐式多态 ............................... 205
10.1.7. 隐式多态和其他继承映射混合使用 ............................... 206
10.2. 限制 ............................................................... 206
11. 与对象共事 ................................................................ 209
11.1. Hibernate 对象状态(object states) ................................. 209
11.2. 使对象持久化 ........................................................ 209
11.3. 装载对象 ............................................................ 210
11.4. 查询 ............................................................... 212
11.4.1. 执行查询 ..................................................... 212
11.4.2. 过滤集合 ..................................................... 216
11.4.3. 条件查询(Criteria queries) ................................. 217
11.4.4. 使用原生 SQL 的查询 ......................................... 217
11.5. 修改持久对象 ........................................................ 218
11.6. 修改脱管(Detached)对象 ............................................ 218
11.7. 自动状态检测 ........................................................ 219
11.8. 删除持久对象 ........................................................ 220
11.9. 在两个不同数据库间复制对象 .......................................... 221
11.10. Session 刷出(flush) .............................................. 221
11.11. 传播性持久化(transitive persistence) ............................. 222
11.12. 使用元数据 ......................................................... 225
12. Read-only entities ........................................................ 227
12.1. Making persistent entities read-only ................................ 228
12.1.1. Entities of immutable classes ................................ 228
12.1.2. Loading persistent entities as read-only ..................... 228
12.1.3. Loading read-only entities from an HQL query/criteria ......... 229
12.1.4. Making a persistent entity read-only ......................... 231
12.2. Read-only affect on property type .................................. 232
12.2.1. Simple properties ............................................ 233
12.2.2. Unidirectional associations .................................. 233
12.2.3. Bidirectional associations ................................... 235
13. 事务和并发 ................................................................ 237
13.1. Session 和事务范围(transaction scope) ............................. 237
13.1.1. 操作单元(Unit of work) ..................................... 237
13.1.2. 长对话 ....................................................... 238
vii
13.1.3. 关注对象标识(Considering object identity) .................. 239
13.1.4. 常见问题 ..................................................... 240
13.2. 数据库事务声明 ...................................................... 240
13.2.1. 非托管环境 ................................................... 241
13.2.2. 使用 JTA .................................................... 242
13.2.3. 异常处理 ..................................................... 244
13.2.4. 事务超时 ..................................................... 244
13.3. 乐观并发控制(Optimistic concurrency control) ...................... 245
13.3.1. 应用程序级别的版本检查(Application version checking) ........ 245
13.3.2. 扩展周期的 session 和自动版本化 .............................. 246
13.3.3. 脱管对象(deatched object)和自动版本化 ...................... 247
13.3.4. 定制自动版本化行为 ........................................... 247
13.4. 悲观锁定(Pessimistic Locking) ..................................... 248
13.5. 连接释放模式(Connection Release Modes) ............................ 248
14. 拦截器与事件(Interceptors and events) ................................... 251
14.1. 拦截器(Interceptors) .............................................. 251
14.2. 事件系统(Event system) ............................................ 253
14.3. Hibernate 的声明式安全机制 .......................................... 254
15. 批量处理(Batch processing) .............................................. 255
15.1. 批量插入(Batch inserts) ........................................... 255
15.2. 批量更新(Batch updates) ........................................... 256
15.3. StatelessSession(无状态 session)接口 .............................. 256
15.4. DML(数据操作语言)风格的操作(DML-style operations) ............... 257
16. HQL: Hibernate 查询语言 ................................................... 261
16.1. 大小写敏感性问题 .................................................... 261
16.2. from 子句 .......................................................... 261
16.3. 关联(Association)与连接(Join) ................................... 262
16.4. join 语法的形式 .................................................... 263
16.5. 引用 identifier 属性 ............................................... 264
16.6. select 子句 ........................................................ 264
16.7. 聚集函数 ............................................................ 265
16.8. 多态查询 ............................................................ 266
16.9. where 子句 ......................................................... 267
16.10. 表达式 ............................................................. 269
16.11. order by 子句 ..................................................... 272
16.12. group by 子句 ..................................................... 273
16.13. 子查询 ............................................................. 274
16.14. HQL 示例 .......................................................... 274
16.15. 批量的 UPDATE 和 DELETE ........................................... 277
16.16. 小技巧 & 小窍门 ................................................... 277
16.17. 组件 .............................................................. 278
16.18. Row value 构造函数语法 ............................................ 279
17. 条件查询(Criteria Queries) .............................................. 281
17.1. 创建一个 Criteria 实例 ............................................. 281
HIBERNATE - Relational Persis...
viii
17.2. 限制结果集内容 ...................................................... 281
17.3. 结果集排序 .......................................................... 282
17.4. 关联 ............................................................... 282
17.5. 动态关联抓取 ........................................................ 284
17.6. 查询示例 ............................................................ 284
17.7. 投影(Projections)、聚合(aggregation)和分组(grouping) ........... 285
17.8. 离线(detached)查询和子查询 ........................................ 286
17.9. 根据自然标识查询(Queries by natural identifier) ................... 287
18. Native SQL 查询 ........................................................... 289
18.1. 使用 SQLQuery ...................................................... 289
18.1.1. 标量查询(Scalar queries) ................................... 289
18.1.2. 实体查询(Entity queries) ................................... 290
18.1.3. 处理关联和集合类(Handling associations and collections) ..... 290
18.1.4. 返回多个实体(Returning multiple entities) .................. 291
18.1.5. 返回非受管实体(Returning non-managed entities) .............. 293
18.1.6. 处理继承(Handling inheritance) ............................. 293
18.1.7. 参数(Parameters) ........................................... 293
18.2. 命名 SQL 查询 ...................................................... 293
18.2.1. 使用 return-property 来明确地指定字段/别名 .................. 299
18.2.2. 使用存储过程来查询 ........................................... 300
18.3. 定制 SQL 用来 create,update 和 delete ............................. 301
18.4. 定制装载 SQL ....................................................... 304
19. 过滤数据 .................................................................. 307
19.1. Hibernate 过滤器(filters) ......................................... 307
20. XML 映射 .................................................................. 311
20.1. 用 XML 数据进行工作 ................................................ 311
20.1.1. 指定同时映射 XML 和类 ........................................ 311
20.1.2. 只定义 XML 映射 ............................................. 312
20.2. XML 映射元数据 ..................................................... 312
20.3. 操作 XML 数据 ...................................................... 314
21. 提升性能 .................................................................. 317
21.1. 抓取策略(Fetching strategies) ..................................... 317
21.1.1. 操作延迟加载的关联 ........................................... 318
21.1.2. 调整抓取策略(Tuning fetch strategies) ...................... 318
21.1.3. 单端关联代理(Single-ended association proxies) .............. 319
21.1.4. 实例化集合和代理(Initializing collections and proxies) ...... 321
21.1.5. 使用批量抓取(Using batch fetching) ......................... 322
21.1.6. 使用子查询抓取(Using subselect fetching) ................... 323
21.1.7. Fetch profile(抓取策略) .................................... 323
21.1.8. 使用延迟属性抓取(Using lazy property fetching) ............. 325
21.2. 二级缓存(The Second Level Cache) ................................. 326
21.2.1. 缓存映射(Cache mappings) ................................... 327
21.2.2. 策略:只读缓存(Strategy:read only) ........................ 329
21.2.3. 策略:读写/缓存(Strategy:read/write) ...................... 329
ix
21.2.4. 策略:非严格读/写缓存(Strategy:nonstrict read/write) ....... 330
21.2.5. 策略:事务缓存(transactional) .............................. 330
21.2.6. 各种缓存提供商/缓存并发策略的兼容性 .......................... 330
21.3. 管理缓存(Managing the caches) ..................................... 330
21.4. 查询缓存(The Query Cache) ........................................ 332
21.4.1. 启用查询缓存 ................................................. 332
21.4.2. 查询缓存区 ................................................... 333
21.5. 理解集合性能(Understanding Collection performance) ................ 333
21.5.1. 分类(Taxonomy) ............................................. 333
21.5.2. Lists,maps 和 sets 用于更新效率最高 ......................... 334
21.5.3. Bag 和 list 是反向集合类中效率最高的 ......................... 334
21.5.4. 一次性删除(One shot delete) ................................ 335
21.6. 监测性能(Monitoring performance) .................................. 335
21.6.1. 监测 SessionFactory .......................................... 335
21.6.2. 数据记录(Metrics) .......................................... 336
22. 工具箱指南 ................................................................ 339
22.1. Schema 自动生成(Automatic schema generation) ...................... 339
22.1.1. 对 schema 定制化(Customizing the schema) ................... 339
22.1.2. 运行该工具 ................................................... 342
22.1.3. 属性(Properties) ........................................... 343
22.1.4. 使用 Ant(Using Ant) ........................................ 343
22.1.5. 对 schema 的增量更新(Incremental schema updates) ........... 344
22.1.6. 用 Ant 来增量更新 schema(Using Ant for incremental schema
updates) ............................................................ 344
22.1.7. Schema 校验 .................................................. 345
22.1.8. 使用 Ant 进行 schema 校验 ................................... 345
23. Additional modules ........................................................ 347
23.1. Bean Validation .................................................... 347
23.1.1. Adding Bean Validation ....................................... 347
23.1.2. Configuration ................................................ 347
23.1.3. Catching violations .......................................... 349
23.1.4. Database schema .............................................. 349
23.2. Hibernate Search ................................................... 350
23.2.1. Description .................................................. 350
23.2.2. Integration with Hibernate Annotations ....................... 350
24. 示例:父子关系(Parent/Child) ............................................. 351
24.1. 关于 collections 需要注意的一点 ..................................... 351
24.2. 双向的一对多关系(Bidirectional one-to-many) ....................... 351
24.3. 级联生命周期(Cascading lifecycle) ................................. 353
24.4. 级联与未保存值(unsaved-value) ..................................... 354
24.5. 结论 ............................................................... 355
25. 示例:Weblog 应用程序 ..................................................... 357
25.1. 持久化类(Persistent Classes) ...................................... 357
25.2. Hibernate 映射 ..................................................... 358
HIBERNATE - Relational Persis...
x
25.3. Hibernate 代码 ..................................................... 360
26. 示例:复杂映射实例 ........................................................ 365
26.1. Employer(雇主)/Employee(雇员) ................................... 365
26.2. Author(作家)/Work(作品) ......................................... 367
26.3. Customer(客户)/Order(订单)/Product(产品) ...................... 369
26.4. 杂例 ............................................................... 371
26.4.1. "Typed" 一对一关联 ........................................... 371
26.4.2. 组合键示例 ................................................... 371
26.4.3. 共有组合键属性的多对多(Many-to-many with shared composite key
attribute) .......................................................... 373
26.4.4. 基于内容的识别 ............................................... 374
26.4.5. 备用键的联合 ................................................. 375
27. 最佳实践(Best Practices) ................................................ 377
28. 数据库移植性考量 .......................................................... 381
28.1. 移植性基础 .......................................................... 381
28.2. Dialect ............................................................. 381
28.3. 方言的使用 .......................................................... 381
28.4. 标识符的生成 ........................................................ 382
28.5. 数据库函数 .......................................................... 383
28.6. 类型映射 ............................................................ 383
参考资料 ....................................................................... 385

 



 

 

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